1. Sprain – A sprain is the overstretching or tearing of a ligament. A ligament is a band of connective tissue that connects one bone to another. sprain treatmentViolent twisting or wrenching of a joint can cause a sprain, which is usually accompanied by symptoms such as pain, swelling, inability to move the joint, and possible bruising. Ankle, knee, thumb, and wrist sprains are common.
  2. Strain – Not to be confused with a sprain, a strain is the overstretching or tearing of a tendon or muscle. A tendon is a strong, fibrous and inelastic cord of tissue that connects muscle to bone. Repetitive motion and overuse can cause a strain. Symptoms include limited flexibility, swelling, pain around the affected joint, muscle spasm, and trouble using the joint’s full range of motion. Your neck, lower back, shoulder, and hamstring are common locations of strains.
  3. ACL tear – The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shinbone) and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. A tear in this ligament is can be caused by poor landing from a jump, suddenly slowing down and changing direction while running (aka cutting), pivoting, sudden deceleration, and receiving a direct blow to the knee. acl tear treatmentSymptoms of an ACL tear can include a “popping” sensation, pain, knee instability, swelling, stiffness, loss of range of motion, and limping. An ACL tear is potentially one of the most severe out of the common sports If it is suspected that a person has this injury, they should see a doctor as soon as possible. A complete ACL tear frequently requires surgery to reconstruct the tendon.
  4. Patellofemoral syndrome – Also known as runner’s knee, this condition is characterized by a dull, aching pain at the front of the knee around the patella (kneecap). This usually occurs when overuse, from the repetitive friction of the patella against the femur, causes damage to the cartilage or tendon under the patella. A misaligned kneecap is also a cause of this syndrome. Signs and symptoms of patellofemoral syndrome include pain when walking up or down stairs, pain when squatting, pain when sitting with a bent knee, joint stiffness, and muscle weakness.
  5. Shin splints – Also known as medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), shin splints is an inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and periosteum (bone tissue) surrounding the tibia. Pain usually occurs along the inner edge of the tibia where muscles attach to the bone. This injury develops when the muscle and periosteum around the tibia become overworked due to overuse.shin splint mckinneyIt often occurs from a significant increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of physical activity. Flat feet, rigid arches, or improper athletic footwear are also contributing factors. The pain can be sharp or dull and throbbing and can happen during and after exercise. This condition often affects runners, dancers and military recruits. Shin splints should not be confused with stress fractures which are micro-fractures that form in the bone.
  6. Tennis elbow – Lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow, is characterized by pain on the outside of the elbow which sometimes radiates to the forearm and wrist. Tennis elbow occurs when the tendons of the forearm muscles that connect to the outer elbow are overused from repetitive contraction of the wrist and arm muscles; overuse causes degeneration of the tendons where they are anchored to the elbow. This degeneration places greater stress on the area and triggers pain when the affected tendon is stimulated by movement such as grasping or lifting objects. Despite its name, tennis elbow can affect those who are not athletes. People who have jobs that involve repetitive motion of the arm and wrist are also susceptible to this type of injury. Golfer’s elbow, or medial epicondylitis, affects the inner elbow and is caused by damage to the muscles and tendons that control your wrist and fingers. It is characterized by numbness and tingling in one or more fingers, weakness to the hand and wrist, and pain along the inner elbow and forearm.
  7. Achilles tendinitis – This is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the body, which connects the calf muscles to the calcaneus (heel bone). It happens when the tendon is irritated, inflamed, or weakened by repetitive stress or intense strain. Pain from this injury is usually felt within the tendon or where it attaches to the heel. Achilles tendinitis commonly occurs in runners or people who participate in sports that involve running and jumping. Achilles tendinitisOther causes of this injury can include a sudden increase in the intensity of exercise, a bone spur, and poorly fitted shoes. Risk factors include age, sex, flat arches, obesity, certain medical conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms of Achilles tendinitis can include pain along the back of the leg and heel that worsens with activity, severe pain the day after exercising, discomfort and stiffness of the heel in the morning, constant swelling in the back of the heel, limited range of motion when flexing the foot, and tight calf muscles. If left untreated, this injury can develop into a ruptured tendon, a painful complication which requires surgery.
  8. Concussion – Also known as a mild traumatic brain injury, a concussion is an injury to the brain that is usually caused by a significant blow to the head or other bodily trauma that causes the head to violently shake back and forth. The sudden impact causes the brain to bounce around inside of the skull causing temporary chemical and functional changes but not structural damage or bleeding. Most concussions involve no loss of consciousness although sometimes there is a temporary loss, especially if it is more severe. Signs and symptoms of a concussion can include confusion, blurred vision, a headache that does not go away, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, changes in sleep patterns (either too much or too little), difficulty concentrating, irritability, short-term memory loss, or sensitivity to noise or light. You should see a doctor right away if you experience any of these symptoms—a thorough neurological exam is necessary to determine the extent of the injury. Some symptoms may show up immediately while others may not be noticed for days or even weeks after the injury. Repeated concussions, especially with contact sports, can result in longer recovery times and an increase in the likelihood of having long-term problems.
  9. Dislocation – A dislocation is the painful injury of a joint where two bones are separated resulting in them no longer being in their usual The tissues surrounding the joint can also become stretched and torn. A bone typically becomes dislocated from considerable force caused by trauma such as a fall, a collision in contact sports, or a motor vehicle accident. dislocated shoulderJoints that have more range of motion, such as the shoulder, are more susceptible to dislocation than stable joints such as the ankle. Symptoms include intense pain, a visibly deformed joint, loss of motion, and swelling. Once a joint has been dislocated, there is a higher probability of it happening again. A dislocation can be hard to distinguish from a fracture, however, both are considered emergencies and should be immediately treated by a physician.
  10. Fracture – A fracture is a broken bone. Trauma from a blunt force impact such as a fall or collision in sports, osteoporosis, and repetitive overuse can all cause this injury. The severity of a break will depend on the amount of force that caused it. Symptoms of a fracture can include pain, swelling and tenderness, grinding or snapping at the moment of fracture, deformity, redness and warmth, bruising and discoloration, and an inability to bear weight or move the affected limb. A fracture is normally a medical emergency and should be treated by a physician right away. Fractures that are more severe, such a compound or comminuted fracture, often require surgery to correct and treat.

Common types of fractures include:

  • Open compound – a severe break that pierces the skin
  • Transverse – has a horizontal fracture line
  • Oblique – has a slanted fracture line
  • Greenstick – is a fracture in a soft, flexible bone. This type of fracture mostly occurs in children under the age of ten.
  • Comminuted – this is when the bone has shattered into several pieces
  • Spiral – when the break spirals around the bone
  • Stable – when the broken ends line up without issue
  • Avulsion – happens when a small piece of bone is pulled away by a tendon or ligament after an injury to the bone
  • Compression – when the bone collapses under pressure. Often occurs in the spine.
  • Stress – tiny cracks in the bone caused by repetitive stress or force.